1. What non-invasive methods for estimating cardiac output do you know?
2. What is the significance of urinary output?
3. Is the darkness of the urine significant?
4. Why not?
A young man presents to the accident and emergency department with an acute onset of dyspnoea.
1. What course of action would you take?
2. What are the likely causes of this presentation?
3. How would you differentiate between a flail chest and a pneumothorax?
4. Describe how a chest drain is inserted.
5. How far beneath the water must the tube be placed?
6. What is the significance of the depth of the under-water seal?