|Complications of smoking:
- Discuss carboxyhaemoglobin, reduced O2 carriage, left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve and cytotoxic hypoxia; what are the different types of hypoxia?
- Discuss the association between nicotine and hypertension, tachycardia and increased systemic vascular resistance.
- What is the time for smoking cessation to reduce risk back to baseline?
- Discuss the different types of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
- What is the association between smoking and ischaemic heart disease?
- What is the association between polycythaemia and deep vein thrombosis.
- Does smoking affect immune function?
- Discuss the aetiology of lung cancer and other associated cancers, such as bladder and gastric cancers.
- Discuss the following respiratory effects relevant to anaesthesia:
- Airway irritability
- Reduced ciliary function
- Increased mucus
- Increased closing volume
- Reversible obstructive disease
- Increased incidence of postoperative problems
- What is the role of epidurals in minimising these complications in patients with respiratory disease; discuss the MASTERS trial.
- What are the principles of preoperative management in heavy smokers?
- Draw a flow volume loop of obstructive airways disease.