|1. Define osmosis.
2. Explain the difference between osmolality and osmolarity.
- What is the importance clinically?
3 What are Starling’s forces?
- Give the equations and draw a diagram to illustrate.
4. Describe the anatomy of the pleura, including:
- The innervation.
- The blood supply
- Clinical application: how would you carry out an intrapleural block?
5. Regarding catecholamines:
- Describe the biochemical pathways and sites of formation.
- Describe the actions of noradrenaline, adrenaline and dopamine.
- Describe the signs, symptoms, and management of phaeochromocytoma.
6. Describe the physiology of aortic cross-clamping.
- What are side-effects?
- Describe the attenuation techniques.
- Describe spinal, cardiac and renal protection techniques and evidence for their efficacy.
7. Classify calcium channel blockers.
- Give examples, side effects, uses, combination therapies for hypertension.