|1. The Alan E. Lindsay ECG Learning Centre. http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/ecg/index.html
2. "Understanding the Electrocardiogram - A New Approach" by Derek J. Rowlands. Sections I and II. Imperial Chemical Industries Pharmaceuticals Division, 1981.
3. "The ECG in Anaesthesia and Critical Care" by Daniel M. Thys and Joel A. Kaplan. Churchill Livingstone, 1987.
4. "Review of Medical Physiology" by W.F. Ganong. McGraw-Hill Publishing Co, 2005.
5. Clinical Medicine by P.J. Kumar and M.L. Clark. Ballière Tindall, 1994.