|1. Explain how cardiac output is measured using a thermodilution technique.
2. Describe how the partial pressure of oxygen in a blood sample is measured using a Clark electrode.
3. Differentiate between the terms ‘heat’ and ‘temperature’.
4. Briefly explain the principles of a mercury thermometer, indicating its advantages and disadvantages.
5. How does a fall in temperature influence blood gas solubility and acid-base values?
6. Explain the physical principles of ultrasound imaging.
7. Briefly explain the principles of Doppler ultrasound, used to measure cardiac output by echocardiography.
8. Briefly describe the differences between laminar and turbulent flow.
9. List the factors that increase the probability of turbulent flow.
10. Briefly describe the measurement of blood pressure using an automated oscillometric non-invasive blood pressure monitor.
11. Briefly outline the problems associated with this kind of monitor.
12. Briefly explain the causes of the differences between measured end tidal and arterial partial pressures of carbon dioxide.
13. Briefly explain the principles of the thermistor, indicating its advantages and disadvantages.
14. Outline the principles of the pneumotachograph.
15. What factors affect the accuracy of this device?
16. Compare two methods for measuring humidity.
17. Briefly discuss the factors which influence the measurement of oxygen saturation using a pulse oximeter.