|1. Discuss the physics of ultrasound.
- How is it generated?
- What is the frequency used?
- Are the waves sent continuously?
- What is the Doppler effect?
- What does it measure?
- Describe the uses of ultrasound.
- Describe the various types of echocardiography
- What are their uses?
- How would you measure cardiac output using echocardiography?
- What are the other uses of ultrasound?
2. Describe the factors that influence intraocular pressure (IOP).
- What is rate of production of aqueous humour?
- Where is it produced?
- Describe the drainage of the aqueous humour, and the use of mydriatics and miotics.
- What are the effects of drugs on IOP?
- What are the effects of suxamethonium on IOP?
- What is sulphur hexafluoride (SF6), and what are its implications for the anaesthetist?
3. Draw a sketch illustrating the elimination of thiopentone.
- How many compartments is it distributed into?
- What is its alpha half-life, beta half-life, elimination half-life?
- What are its apparent volume of distribution and clearance values?
- To what extent is it protein bound?
- How is it metabolised?
- What is the half-life of pentobarbitone?
- Describe the pharmacodynamics of thiopentone.
- What is its mechanism of action?
- Following thiopentone administration, which decreases first: cerebral metabolic rate or cerebral blood flow?
- What are the implications of using thiopentone in patients with hypovolaemia?
- What are the effects of thiopentone on the respiratory system?
- What are the effects of thiopentone on the renal system?
- How does thiopentone lead to porphyria?
- What is the pH of thiopentone and why is it stored with nitrogen?
- Why does it smell of garlic?
4. How would you assess the nutrition of patients in the intensive care unit?
- What is the average calorific requirement of a 70 kg adult?
- How would you provide this?
- Which type of foodstuff is best to administer, and why?
- How much carbohydrate and protein should be given?
- What is immunonutrition?
- What else would you give such patients?
- What trace elements would you provide?