Answer the following questions on the intercostal nerves
– List the branches.
– Where are they located? (i.e. between which intercostal muscles?)
– Where do they arise from?
- Why are the 1st, 2nd and 12th intercostal nerves different?
– Which nerve supplies the skin over the back?
– Describe the nerve supply to the diaphragm.
– How is an intercostal nerve block performed (site, volume etc.)?
– Describe the location and arrangement of the neurovascular nerve bundle.
– When an intercostal nerve block is performed, where and how does the local anaesthetic spread?
– What are the complications of an intercostal nerve block?
Answer the following questions on adrenaline:
– What receptors does it act on?
– Where is it secreted from?
– How is it metabolised?
- How is it synthesised?
- Why is it used in local anaesthesia?
– What are the systemic effects of adrenaline?
Answer the following questions on one-lung ventilation (OLV):
– What are the indications for OLV?
- What are the physiological mechanisms/causes of hypoxaemia with intrathoracic surgery?
– How should hypoxaemia on OLV be treated?
– How would you apply continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the non-dependent lung?
– How could the surgeon assist in applying CPAP?
Answer the following questions on electricity:
– What is Ohm’s law?
– What is the difference between direct (DC) and alternating (AC) current?
– Draw a diagram demonstrating the differences between AC and DC.
– Does Ohm’s law apply to AC or DC?
– Is the mains supply AC or DC?
– What is mains current frequency?
- Is the mains current frequency safe?
– If the answer to the previous question is “no”, why is it used?
– Discuss the problem of leakage current. By what mechanisms might a patient suffer?