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Final basic sciences short case 6

Created: 30/11/2004
 

Answer the following questions on the intercostal nerves

– List the branches.

– Where are they located? (i.e. between which intercostal muscles?)

– Where do they arise from?

- Why are the 1st, 2nd and 12th intercostal nerves different?

– Which nerve supplies the skin over the back?

– Describe the nerve supply to the diaphragm.

– How is an intercostal nerve block performed (site, volume etc.)?

– Describe the location and arrangement of the neurovascular nerve bundle.

– When an intercostal nerve block is performed, where and how does the local anaesthetic spread?

– What are the complications of an intercostal nerve block?

Answer the following questions on adrenaline:

– What receptors does it act on?

– Where is it secreted from?

– How is it metabolised?

- How is it synthesised?

- Why is it used in local anaesthesia?

– What are the systemic effects of adrenaline?

Answer the following questions on one-lung ventilation (OLV):

– What are the indications for OLV?

- What are the physiological mechanisms/causes of hypoxaemia with intrathoracic surgery?

– How should hypoxaemia on OLV be treated?

– How would you apply continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to the non-dependent lung?

– How could the surgeon assist in applying CPAP?

Answer the following questions on electricity:

– What is Ohm’s law?

– What is the difference between direct (DC) and alternating (AC) current?

– Draw a diagram demonstrating the differences between AC and DC.

– Does Ohm’s law apply to AC or DC?

– Is the mains supply AC or DC?

– What is mains current frequency?

- Is the mains current frequency safe?

– If the answer to the previous question is “no”, why is it used?

– Discuss the problem of leakage current. By what mechanisms might a patient suffer?


ArticleDate:20041130
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