1. What is a buffer?
2. Explain the importance of buffers
3. How are buffers classified?
4. Which is the most important buffer in the body?
5. What is the equation for the formation of bicarbonate?
6. Which enzyme is essential for the formation of bicarbonate?
7. How does bicarbonate buffer the hydrogen ions?
8. How are hydrogen ions produced in the body?
9. What concentration of hydrogen ions are produced per day?
10. How does the body handle an acid load?
11. How are hydrogen ions buffered in protein and haemoglobin?
12. How does the kidney handle hydrogen ions?
13. How is metabolic acidosis compensated in chronic renal failure?
14. What would be the blood findings in chronic renal failure?
15. Describe the anatomy of the adrenal gland
16. Describe the various layers of the adrenal cortex and their secretions
17. What functions are carried out by the adrenal medulla?
18. List the various the amino acid precursors and describe the steps in their synthesis
19. In healthy adults, which is produced in greater quantity: adrenaline or noradrenaline?
20. Describe the features of right-axis deviation in the heart.
21. In the heart, which ventricle is normally dominant?
22. What is the ratio of the size of left ventricle to right ventricle?