1. Define the Valsalva manoeuvre. Who was Valsava?
2. Sketch the mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy and sympathectomised patients and in patients with congestive cardiac failure (CCF).
3. What reflex causes these changes and what nerves carry afferents in these conditions?
4. Where are the receptors mediating these responses, and where in the brain do the afferents relay to?
5. How many nuclei does the vagus nerve have?
6. What is the cerebral blood flow rate in ml/kg/min?
7. Does cerebral blood flow (CBF) vary from white to grey matter? Give values for these regions.
8. How is CBF measured? (you may like to consider the Kety-Schmidt technique and Doppler)
9. Define the Doppler effect.
10. Where is the jugular bulb?
11. Describe Monro–Kellie doctrine.
12. Sketch the autoregulation curve in a healthy person and in a patient with chronic hypertension.
13. Write an equation for intracranial pressure (ICP) and sketch curves for CBF-O2 and CBF-CO2.