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You are in Home >> Exams >> Primary FRCA >> Primary MCQ 1

Cardiovascular MCQs

Created: 23/1/2006

 


1. In the electrocardiogram at a heart rate of 80 per minute:

a) the PR interval should be less than 0.2 s and greater than 0.12 s
b) the QRS complex should last less than 0.02 s
c) the T wave is normally greater than 1 mV
d) there will be an interval of 0.75 s between the end of one complex and the beginning of the next
e) the T wave is ventricular repolarisation

2. Fibrinogen degradation products are natural anticoagulants interfering with:

a) polymerisation of the fibrin monomer
b) platelet aggregation
c) thrombin activity
d) serum calcium concentrations
e) intrinsic pathway activation

3. Atropine:

a) has no effect on acetylcholine production or destruction
b) dilates cutaneous blood vessels
c) is a parasympathetic depressant
d) stimulates the respiratory centre
e) increases intraocular pressure

4. In the cardiac cycle:

a) left ventricular volume is maximal at the end of atrial systole
b) the mitral valve closes by contraction of the papillary muscles
c) the left ventricular pressure is maximal just before the aortic valve opens
d) the ejection fraction is about 85%
e) the dicrotic notch is due to rebound of the aortic valve

5. Pulmonary vascular resistance:

a) is increased in chronic hypoxia
b) has a value approximately one-sixth that of the systemic circulation
c) can be measured using a flow-directed balloon catheter with a thermistor tip
d) is increased by isoprenaline
e) is decreased by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)

6. Dopamine:

a) increases cardiac output
b) in high doses causes peripheral vasodilatation
c) increases renal blood flow
d) increases ventricular excitability
e) increases splanchnic blood flow

7. The following are true of alpha-adrenoceptor blocking agents:

a) they increase blood flow in normal skin and muscle
b) they cause drowsiness
c) the clinically useful drugs are competitive antagonists
d) they have only alpha 1- blocking activity
e) they are chronotropic agents

8. In the normal cardiac cycle:

a) the period of ventricular systole is equal to the Q-T interval
b) the duration of the QRS complex depends on the heart rate
c) the PR interval is less than 0.22 s
d) ejection occurs throughout systole
c) the R-R interval may vary

9. The oxygen carrying capacity of the blood is:

a) the maximum quantity of oxygen that will combine with 100 ml of whole blood
b) the ratio between oxygen uptake and oxygen usage
c) independent of the haemoglobin concentration
d) the oxygen physically dissolved in blood
c) normally of the order of 15 ml per 100 ml whole blood

10. Captropril:

a) increases the rate of breakdown of angiotensin II
b) inhibits the breakdown of bradykinin
c) may cause an increase in plasma potassium
d) can safely be given in large doses in hypertensive crisis
e) urine should be checked regularly for proteinuria

11. The following are isotonic with plasma:

a) 1.2% sodium bicarbonate
b) 5% dextrose
c) 0.9 molar NaCl
d) Hartmann's solution (Ringer-Lactate)
e) human plasma protein fraction (5% human albumin solution)

12. When measuring arterial blood pressure using a sphygmomanometer cuff:

a) if the cuff is too small for the arm, the pressure will tend to read high
b) accuracy is increased by leaving the cuff slightly inflated between readings
c) the slower the deflation, the more accurate the reading
d) a mercury column has a low frequency response
e) diastolic pressure agrees more accurately with direct measurement than will systolic pressure

13. Sympathetic innervation of blood vessels:

a) is mediated by alpha-adrenoceptors
b) is mediated locally by noradrenaline
c) implies that sympathectomy induces vasodilation
d) increases flow independent of vessel diameter
e) induces vasodilation in response to cold and haemorrhage

14. Venous return to the heart is decreased by:

a) the Valsalva manoeuvre
b) exercise
c) paralysis of skeletal muscles
d) femoral arteriovenous fistula
c) rapid infusion of blood

15. The following are important in physiological limitation of blood clotting:

a) removal of activated clotting factors by the liver
b) prostacyclin
c) protein C
d) a factor released from the endothelial cells
e) fibrinogen

16. Heart rate is slowed by:

a) amphetamine
b) atropine
c) propranalol
d) dobutamine
e) nifedipine

17. Using propranolol to treat hypertension:

a) may exacerbate asthma
b) often produces postural hypotension
c) is contraindicated in patients with high plasma renin levels
d) may precipitate cardiac failure in susceptible patients
e) should be avoided in a patient with Raynaud's phenomenon

18. Cardiac output may be measured by:

a) thermodilution
b) electromagnetic flow meter
c) Doppler ultrasound
d) limb plethysmography
e) ballistocardiography

19. In pulse oximetry:

a) the theoretical basis is Stefan's law
b) calibration is against known in vitro standards
c) carboxyhaemoglobin does not affect readings
d) accuracy at readings above 90% saturation is to within 0.1%
e) pulse amplitude is a good indicator of cardiac output

20. The coronary blood flow:

a) is about 500 ml/min at rest
b) supplies muscle that takes up 40 ml oxygen per minute at rest
c) is altered directly by vagal activity
d) ceases in systole
e) is autoregulated

 
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ArticleDate:20060123
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